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Certain genetic conditions can be identified and diagnosed in an embryo, before it is transferred back into the female patient.  The techniques of CCS and PGD are used in conjunction with IVF.  Once a couple has undergone IVF and embryos created, the embryos are biopsied, and the tissue sent for extensive evaluation.  This evaluation can be specific (PGD), i.e. if the mother or father has a known genetic condition, or more general (CCS), where all chromosomes are analyzed.  Unaffected embryos can then be transferred, preventing transmission of certain conditions, increasing the pregnancy rate and decreasing the miscarriage rate.  The biopsy is most commonly performed on the fifth day after egg retrieval, when the embryo has many cells, so the biopsy has minimal impact on the embryo itself.  When this biopsy is performed, results are typically not returned in time to perform a fresh embryo transfer that cycle; therefore, embryos are frozen (cryopreserved) for transfer in a subsequent cycle.